Chapter 8 Appendix

8.1 Business game “Spatial distribution of activities in a monocentric city”

8.1.1 Purpose

The purpose of the game is to illustrate the Alsonso-Mills-Muth theory of spatial distribution of different economic activities in monocentric cities. The students should understand the notion of land rent gradient pointing to a declining rental price for land as a function of distance from the city center.

8.1.2 Course of game

The game is conducted in form of an auction. Each student chooses the industry he is going to represent: offices, restaurants, manufacturing, housing, or agriculture. Then, a discussion is conducted, how in each industry the price is set — how does it depend on the distance from the city center. The rent each agent can pay for land plot is described by the following formula: \[\begin{equation*}\label{eq:Land_rent} R_i = (P_i - t_i\times d)\times Q_i \end{equation*}\] where \(R_i\) is the land rent an agent is of industry \(i\) is ready to pay; \(P_i\) is the unit price for the products or services of \(i\)-th industry; \(t_i\) is the cost of transporting one unit of product for 1 km; \(d\) is the distance from the city center; and \(Q_i\) is the output. For simplicity, other cost than resulting from transportation can be set to 0.

The coefficients for each industry are provided in Table 8.1.

Table 8.1: Production parameters
Sector Unit price, P(i) Output, Q(i) Transportation cost, t(i)
Offices 50 10 5
Restaurants 40 10 3
Manufacturing 30 10 2
Housing 20 10 1
Agriculture 10 10 0

It is assumed that all the commodities must be transported to the city center (parcel 0) for sale. All the parcels, from 0 to the \(n\)-th, are offered for sale. For each parcel, each participants computes his expected revenue and sets his bid price. The closer the bid price to the revenue, the lower the profit. The higher the bid price, the higher the chance to obtain the parcel. After all parcels are sold, the profit of each participant is calculated. The winner is the person who obtained the highest profit.

8.2 Business game “Rental housing market”

8.2.1 Purpose

The purpose of the game is to show the students the functioning of a rental housing market. They can observe in a simplified way the factors governing the rent setting. Moreover, they learn how the society can change the rules of game and what are the possible outcomes of such changes. Preparation. The students are divided into two groups: landlords (about 40% of all students in the group) and tenants (about 60%). Every person has a minimum subsistence level of 50 RUR per period. The only source of income of landlors is renting out one of their two apartments. They bear 20 RUR of costs for the rental dwelling. Their own dwelling is available to them for free. Tenants, in turn, are divided into two subgroups: poor (150 RUR) and rich (300 RUR).

8.2.2 Course of game

The game is made up of several rounds. During each round, the tenants negotiate with the landlords to rent a dwelling. Those, who become homeless, are threatened by the death of cold. Those, who pay too high a rent, can starve, if the remaining income after deduction of rent is lower than 50 RUR. There can be at most two tenants per dwelling. Thus, subletting and shared renting are allowed. After each round, the negotiated rental price is written on the whiteboard in front of each dwellings’s number. Based on this price several performance measures for each game participant can be computed:

Table 8.2: Results of game round ***
Dwelling number Rent, RUR Tenant’s income, RUR Rental burden, % Net revenue of landlord, RUS
1 80 150 53.3 60
2 75 150 50 55
3 100 300 33.3 80
Average rent 85

After this, a new round begins. The participants are advised to change their negotiation partners, so that the pairs landlord-tenant are not always the same. Needless to say, the game participants are allowed to move across the class during the game.

8.2.3 Scenarios

Several scenarios can be considered:

  1. Landlord’s cost increase due
    • to change in the mortgage interest rate
    • or real estate tax rate.
  2. Incomes of poor increase.
  3. Some dwellings are destroyed.

After each change in conditions, a new round of game is carried out. Its results are put on the whiteboard and discussed with the game participants.

8.2.4 Governmental policy

When conditions become unbearable for the tenants, the game participants are reminded that they are a society and can adopt various social policies based on a majority vote. The alternative bills are discussed and voted. The corresponding policy is applied and its impact on rents, rental burden, and income distribution are analyzed.

Aalbers, Manuel B. 2016. “The Financialization of Home and the Mortgage Market Crisis.” In The Financialization of Housing, 40–63. Routledge.

Abreu, Dilip, and Markus K Brunnermeier. 2003. “Bubbles and Crashes.” Econometrica 71 (1): 173–204.

Allen, Franklin, and Gary Gorton. 1993. “Churning Bubbles.” The Review of Economic Studies 60 (4): 813–36.

Alonso, William. 1964. Location and Land Use: Toward a General Theory of Land Rent. Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA.

Arnott, Richard. 1995. “Time for Revisionism on Rent Control?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 (1): 99–120.

———. 2003. “Tenancy Rent Control.” Swedish Economic Policy Review 10 (1): 89–134.

Bailey, M. J., R. F. Muth, and H. O. Nourse. 1963. “A Regression Method for Real Estate Price Index Construction.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 58: 933–42.

Belsky, Eric, and Nicholas Retsinas. 2004. “History of Housing Finance and Policy in Spain.” Cambridge MA: Harvard University working paper.

Berg, Lennart. 1988. “Hushållens Sparande Och Konsumtion (Household Saving and Consumption).” Expertrapport till Sparutredningen.

Bertaud, Alain, and Stephen Malpezzi. 2014. “The Spatial Distribution of Population in 57 World Cities: The Role of Markets, Planning, and Topography.”

Blanchard, Olivier J, and Mark W Watson. 1982. “Bubbles, Rational Expectations and Financial Markets.” In Crises in the Economic and Financial Structure: Bubbles, Bursts, and Shocks, edited by P Wachtel. D.C.Heath; Company, Lexington.

Blanchflower, David G, and Andrew J Oswald. 2013. “Does High Home-Ownership Impair the Labor Market?” National Bureau of Economic Research.

Blanco Artola, Miguel. 2012. “La transformación del mercado de alquiler de fincas urbanas en España (1920–1960).” Revista Bibliográfica de Geografı́a Y Ciencias Sociales 17 (988).

Blanco Blanco, Andrés G. 2014. “La realidad del alquiler en América Latina y el Caribe.” In Busco Casa En Arriendo. Promover El Alquiler Tiene Sentido, edited by Andrés G. Blanco, Vicente Fretes Cibils, and Andrés F. Muñoz. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Bonduki, Nabil Georges. 1994. “Origens Da Habitação Social No Brasil.” Análise Social XXIX (127): 711–32.

Bracke, Philippe, Christian Hilber, and Olmo Silva. 2012. “Homeownerhip and Entrepreneurship.” Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science.

Brueckner, Jan K. 2011. Lectures on Urban Economics. MIT Press.

Brueckner, Jan K, Jacques-François Thisse, and Yves Zenou. 1999. “Why Is Central Paris Rich and Downtown Detroit Poor?: An Amenity-Based Theory.” European Economic Review 43 (1): 91–107.

Brunnermeier, Markus K. 2008. “Bubbles.” In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics: Volume 1–8, edited by S N Durlauf and L E Blume, 2:578–83. Springer.

Brunnermeier, Markus K, and Martin Oehmke. 2013. “Bubbles, Financial Crises, and Systemic Risk.” In Handbook of the Economics of Finance, 2:1221–88. Elsevier.

Bry, Gerhard, and Charlotte Boschan. 1971. Cyclical Analysis of Time Series: Selected Procedures and Computer Programs. NBER Books. National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

Cameron, Gavin, and John Muellbauer. 1998. “The Housing Market and Regional Commuting and Migration Choices.” Scottish Journal of Political Economy 45 (4): 420–46.

Case, Karl E, and Robert J Shiller. 1987. “Prices of Single Family Homes Since 1970: New Indexes for Four Cities.” New England Economic Review 5: 45–56.

Catte, Pietro, Nathalie Girouard, Robert WR Price, and Christophe André. 2004. “Housing Markets, Wealth and the Business Cycle.” OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 394; OECD Publishing.

CENAC. 2007. “Caracterización del mercado de arrendamientos urbanos para el segmento de la población de bajos ingresos.” Trabajo realizado para MAVDT-UN HÁBITAT-First Initiative. Bogotá: CENAC (Centro de Estudios de la Construcción y el Desarrollo Urbano y Regional).

Ching, Lin Kuo, and Amina Tyabji. 1991. “Home Ownership Policy in Singapore: An Assessment.” Housing Studies 6 (1): 15–28.

Christaller, W. 1966. Central Places in Southern Germany. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Christaller, Walter. 1933. Die Zentralen Orte in Süddeutschland. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Collinson, Robert, Ingrid Gould Ellen, and Jens Ludwig. 2015. “Low-Income Housing Policy.” NBER Working Paper No. 21071.

Cramer, Jan Salomon. 1999. “Predictive Performance of the Binary Logit Model in Unbalanced Samples.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (the Statistician) 48 (1): 85–94.

Destatis. 2014. “Gebäude- und Wohnungsbestand in Deutschland: Erste Ergebnisse der Gebäude- und Wohnungszählung 2011.” Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder.

Deutscher Bundestag. 2016. “Sozialer Wohnungsbau in Deutschland — Entwicklung, Bestand, Perspektive. Drucksache 18/8855. 18. Wahlperiode.”

———. 2017. “Drucksache 18/13700. Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung. Raumordnungsbericht 2017.”

DiPasquale, Denise, and Edward L Glaeser. 1999. “Incentives and Social Capital: Are Homeowners Better Citizens?” Journal of Urban Economics 45 (2): 354–84.

DiPasquale, Denise, and William C. Wheaton. 1996. Urban Economics and Real Estate Markets. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Dreger, Christian, and Konstantin A. Kholodilin. 2013. “An Early Warning System to Predict Speculative House Price Bubbles.” Economics — the Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal 7: 1–26.

Eichengreen, Barry, Andrew K. Rose, and Charles Wyplosz. 1994. “Speculative Attacks on Pegged Exchange Rates: An Empirical Exploration with Special Reference to the European Monetary System.” NBER Working Papers 4898. National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

Ellard, Colin. 2015. Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life. Bellevue Literary Press.

Festa, Maurizio, Erika Ghiraldo, Saverio Serafini, Isidora Barbaccia, Marco Carotenuto, Danilo Carullo, Giacomo Antonio Di Fazio, Maurizio Salvatori, Daniela Tellone, and Germana Bottone. 2019. “Gli immobili in Italia 2019 – Ricchezza, reddito e fiscalità immobiliare.” Agenzia delle Entrate and il Dipartimento delle Finanze del Ministero dell’Economia.

Figari, Francesco, Alari Paulus, Holly Sutherland, Panos Tsakloglou, Gerlinde Verbist, and Francesca Zantomio. 2017. “Removing Homeownership Bias in Taxation: The Distributional Effects of Including Net Imputed Rent in Taxable Income.” Fiscal Studies 38 (4): 525–57.

Franco Ubeda, Enrique Daniel. 2016. “Las relaciones de carácter legal entre propietarios y arrendatarios, y su comportamiento al margen de la ley, provocando perdidas económicas y detrimento de la propiedad.” Universidad Laica Vicente Rocafuerte de Guayaquil.

Galster, George C. 1983. “Empirical Evidence on Cross-Tenure Differences in Home Maintenance and Conditions.” Land Economics 59 (1): 107–13.

Garber, Peter M. 1990. “Famous First Bubbles.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 4 (2): 35–54.

Gehl, Jan. 2013. Cities for People. Island press.

Gerdesmeier, Dieter, Hans-Eggert Reimers, and Barbara Roffia. 2010. “Asset Price Misalignments and the Role of Money and Credit.” International Finance 13 (3): 377–407.

Glaeser, Edward L, and Charles G Nathanson. 2015. “Housing Bubbles.” In Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, 5:701–51. Elsevier.

Glaeser, Edward L, and Jesse M Shapiro. 2003. “The Benefits of the Home Mortgage Interest Deduction.” Tax Policy and the Economy 17: 37–82.

Goodman, Laurie S, and Christopher Mayer. 2018. “Homeownership and the American Dream.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 32 (1): 31–58.

Green, Richard K, and Michelle J White. 1997. “Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children.” Journal of Urban Economics 41 (3): 441–61.

Grose, Daniel, Chris Brunsdon, and Richard Harris. 2008. “Introduction to Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and to Grid Enabled GWR.” http://csiss.org/GISPopSci/workshops/2011/PSU/readings/Grose-Brunsdon-Harris-GWR.pdf.

Haas, Heide. 2018. “Paradigms of Home Ownership Promotion: The Changing Role of Economists in the Knowledge Production for Housing Politics in Germany.”

Hamilton, James D. 1989. “A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle.” Econometrica 57 (2): 357–84.

Hanau, Arthur. 1928. “Die Prognose der Schweinepreise.” Vierteljahreshefte Zur Konjunkturforschung 7: 1–41. http://www.diw.de/documents/dokumentenarchiv/17/43353/viertel_1928.pdf.

Harding, Don, and Adrian Pagan. 2001. “Extracting, Using and Analysing Cyclical Information.” MPRA Paper 15. University Library of Munich, Germany.

Harvey, David. 1985. The Urbanization of Capital. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Heelsum, A van. 2007. “CLIP Case Study on Housing in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.” Report of the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research; DublinEurofound.

Hilber, Christian A. L., and Wouter Vermeulen. 2016. “The Impact of Supply Constraints on House Prices in England.” Economic Journal 126 (591): 358–405.

Hoff, Karla, and Arijit Sen. 2005. “Homeownership, Community Interactions, and Segregation.” American Economic Review 95 (4): 1167–89.

Homm, Ulrich, and Jörg Breitung. 2012. “Testing for Speculative Bubbles in Stock Markets: A Comparison of Alternative Methods.” Journal of Financial Econometrics 10 (1): 198–231.

Housing Europe. 2017. “The State of Housing in the EU 2017.” European Federation of Public, Cooperative and Social Housing. https://www.urbangateway.org/document/state-housing-eu-2017.

Huber, Peter, Josef Montag, Hana Marie Smrčková, and Petr Sunega. 2017. “Homeownership, Mobility, and Unemployment: Evidence from Privatization in Transition Countries.” mimeo.

IMF. 2011. “Global Financial Stability Report Durable Financial Stability Getting There from Here.” International Monetary Fund Washington DC.

Jacobs, Jane. 2016. The Economy of Cities. Vintage.

Jordà, Òscar, Moritz Schularick, and Alan M Taylor. 2016. “The Great Mortgaging: Housing Finance, Crises and Business Cycles.” Economic Policy 31 (85): 107–52.

Kaminsky, Graciela, Saul Lizondo, and Carmen M. Reinhart. 1998. “Leading Indicators of Currency Crises.” IMF Staff Papers 45 (1): 1–48.

Keating, W Dennis. 1983. “Rent Control in California: Responding to the Rental Housing Crisis.” Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

Kholodilin, Konstantin. 2017. “Quantifying a Century of State Intervention in Rental Housing in Germany.” Urban Research and Practice 10 (3): 267–328.

Kholodilin, Konstantin A. 2020. “Housing Policies Worldwide During Coronavirus Crisis: Challenges and Solutions.” DIW focus 2. https://rpubs.com/Konstantin_Xo/605805.

Kholodilin, Konstantin A. 2020. “Long-Term, Multicountry Perspective on Rental Market Regulations.” Housing Policy Debate forthcoming.

Kholodilin, Konstantin A, Andreas Mense, and Claus Michelsen. 2017. “The Market Value of Energy Efficiency in Buildings and the Mode of Tenure.” Urban Studies 54 (14): 3218–38.

Kholodilin, Konstantin, Jan Philip Weber, and Steffen Sebastian. 2018. “Rental Market Regulation over the Last 100 Years in an International Comparison.” DIW Weekly Report 8 (45): 453–64.

Knoll, Katharina, Moritz Schularick, and Thomas Steger. 2017. “No Price Like Home: Global House Prices, 1870–2012.” American Economic Review 107 (2): 331–53.

Kohl, Sebastian. 2017. Homeownership, Renting and Society: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. London: Routledge.

Kortelainen, Mika, and Tuukka Saarimaa. 2015. “Do Urban Neighborhoods Benefit from Homeowners? Evidence from Housing Prices.” The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 117 (1): 28–56.

Krolzig, Hans-Martin. 1997. Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions. Modelling, Statistical Inference and Application to Business Cycle Analysis. Springer Verlag.

Krumm, Ronald, and Austin Kelly. 1989. “Effects of Homeownership on Household Savings.” Journal of Urban Economics 26 (3): 281–94.

Lee, Dayne. 2016. “How Airbnb Short-Term Rentals Exacerbate Los Angeles’s Affordable Housing Crisis: Analysis and Policy Recommendations.” Harvard Law and Policy Review 10: 229–53.

Lerbs, Oliver. 2011. “Is There a Link Between Homeownership and Unemployment? Evidence from German Regional Data.” International Economics and Economic Policy 8 (4): 407–26.

Lerbs, Oliver, and Christian Oberst. 2014. “Explaining the Spatial Variation in Homeownership Rates: Results for German Regions.” Regional Studies 48 (5): 844–65.

LeSage, James, and Robert Kelley Pace. 2009. Introduction to Spatial Econometrics. Chapman; Hall.

Lo, Kuang-Ta. 2012. “The Crowding-Out Effect of Homeownership on Fertility.” Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33 (1): 108–17.

Lösch, August. 1944. Die räumliche Ordnung der Wirtschaft. Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Malpezzi, Stephen. 2003. “Hedonic Pricing Models: A Selective and Applied Review.” In Housing Economics: Essays in Honour of Duncan Maclennan, edited by T. O. Sullivan and K. Gibbs. University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research; Blackwell.

Mayor of London. 2015. “Housing in London 2015.” Greater London Authority.

McDonald, John F, and Daniel P McMillen. 2011. Urban Economics and Real Estate: Theory and Policy. John Wiley & Sons.

McKenzie, Dennis J, Richard M Betts, and Carol A Jensen. 2011. Essentials of Real Estate Economics. Cengage Learning.

Megbolugbe, Isaac F., and Peter D. Linneman. 1993. “Home Ownership.” Urban Studies 30 (4-5): 659–82.

Miller, Edward M. 1977. “Risk, Uncertainty, and Divergence of Opinion.” The Journal of Finance 32 (4): 1151–68.

Mills, Edwin S. 1972. Studies in the Structure of the Urban Economy. ERIC.

Mooya, Manya M. 2016. Real Estate Valuation Theory: A Critical Appraisal. Springer Verlag.

Mumford, Lewis. 1961. The City in History. Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, inc.

Muth, Richard F. 1975. Urban Economic Problems. HarperCollins Publishers.

Nzonzo, Marcus Taurai. 2005. “A Critical Discussion and Analysis of the Relevance and Efficacy of the Rent Act Vis-à-Vis the Impact of Other Housing Laws Governing Land Tenure in Zambia.” University of Zambia.

OECD. 2013. “Definition of Functional Urban Areas (FUA) for the OECD Metropolitan Database.” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

O’Sullivan, Arthur. 2008. “The First Cities.” In A Companion to Urban Economics, 40–54. Blackwell Publishing.

———. 2012. Urban Economics. McGraw-Hill International Edition.

Oswald, Andrew. 1996. A Conjecture on the Explanation for High Unemployment in the Industrialised Nations: Part 1. Department of Economics, University of Warwick Warwick, UK.

Phillips, Peter CB, Shuping Shi, and Jun Yu. 2015. “Testing for Multiple Bubbles: Historical Episodes of Exuberance and Collapse in the S&P 500.” International Economic Review 56 (4): 1043–78.

Piketty, Thomas, and Gabriel Zucman. 2014. “Capital Is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700–2010.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 129 (3): 1255–1310.

Reinhart, Carmen M., and Graciela L. Kaminsky. 1999. “The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems.” American Economic Review 89 (3): 473–500.

Rink, Dieter, and Manuel Wolff. 2015. “Wohnungsleerstand in Deutschland. Zur Konzeptualisierung der Leerstandsquote als Schlüsselindikator der Wohnungsmarktbeobachtung anhand der GWZ 2011.” Raumforschung Und Raumordnung (Spatial Research and Planning) 73 (5): 311–25.

Rohe, William M, and Leslie S Stewart. 1996. “Homeownership and Neighborhood Stability.” Housing Policy Debate 7 (1): 37–81.

Rosen, Kenneth T, and Lawrence B Smith. 1983. “The Price-Adjustment Process for Rental Housing and the Natural Vacancy Rate.” The American Economic Review 73 (4): 779–86.

Ruonavaara, Hannu. 1993. “Types and Forms of Housing Tenure: Towards Solving the Comparison/Translation Problem.” Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research 10 (1): 3–20.

Rünstler, Gerhard. 2016. “How Distinct Are Financial Cycles from Business Cycles?” Research Bulletin 26: 1.

Sánchez, Aida Caldera, and Dan Andrews. 2011. “Residential Mobility and Public Policy in OECD Countries.” OECD Journal: Economic Studies 2011 (1): 185–206.

Schwabe, Hermann. 1868. Das Verhältnis von Miete und Einkommen in Berlin und seine Entwicklung. Berlin.

Shleifer, Andrei, and Robert W Vishny. 1997. “The Limits of Arbitrage.” The Journal of Finance 52 (1): 35–55.

Siliverstovs, Boriss. 2005. “The Bi-Parameter Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model.” Economics Bulletin 3 (23): 1–11.

Siskiö, O. 1990. “Learning from Tenure: An International Comparison of the Meaning of Tenure in Nine European Countries — East and West.” Housing Evaluation. Housing evaluation. Rotterdam: CIB Proceedings, publication 118.

Speck, Jeff. 2012. Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time. Farrar, Straus; Giroux.

Statistisches Amt der Stadt Berlin. 1902. Die Grundstücks-Aufnahme Ende Oktober 1900 sowie die Wohnungs- und die Bevölkerungs-Aufnahme vom 1. Dezember 1900 in Berlin und dreiundzwanzig Nachbargemeinden. Berlin: Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht.

———. 1910. Die Grundstücks-Aufnahme vom Ende Oktober 1905 sowie die Wohnungs- und die Bevölkerungs-Aufnahme vom 1. Dezember 1905 in der Stadt Berlin und 29 benachbarten Gemeinden. Berlin: Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht.

———. 1925. Die Grundstücks- und Wohnungsaufnahme sowie die Volks-, Berufs- und Betriebszählung in Berlin im Jahre 1925, Heft 3, Nr. 5. Berlin: Puttkammer und Mühlbrecht.

Statistisches Bundesamt. 2000. 50 Jahre Wohnen in Deutschland. Metzler-Poeschel Stuttgart.

———. 2013. Erste Ergebnisse des Zensus 2011 für Gebäude und Wohnungen. Ausgewählte Daten für Gemeinden. Wiesbaden.

Steel, Carolyn. 2013. Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives. Random House.

Stein, Jeremy C. 1995. “Prices and Trading Volume in the Housing Market: A Model with down-Payment Effects.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 110 (2): 379–406.

Sveinsson, J. R. 2004. “The Formation of Urban Homeownership in Iceland.” Paper presented at the ENHR 2004 Conference “Housing: Growth and Regeneration”, Cambridge, 2–6 July 2004.

Teräsvirta, T, and H M Anderson. 1992. “Characterizing Nonlinearities in Business Cycles Using Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models.” Journal of Applied Econometrics 7 (S): S119–36.

Tirole, Jean. 1985. “Asset Bubbles and Overlapping Generations.” Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society 53 (6): 1499–1528.

Tong, H. 1978. “On a Threshold Model.” In Pattern Recognition and Signal Processing, edited by C. H. Chen. Sijhoff & Noordhoff.

———. 1990. Non-Linear Time Series: A Dynamical System Approach. Oxford University Press.

van Dijk, Dick, and Philip Hans Franses. 1999. “Modeling Multiple Regimes in the Business Cycle.” Macroeconomic Dynamics 3 (03): 311–40.

van Dijk, Dick, Timo Teräsvirta, and Philip Hans Franses. 2002. “Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models — a Survey of Recent Developments.” Econometric Reviews 21 (1): 1–47.

von Thünen, Johann Heinrich. 1826. Der isolierte Staat. Beziehung auf Landwirtschaft und Nationalökonomie, oder Untersuchungen über den Einfluß, den die Getreidepreise, der Reichthum des Bodens und die Abgaben auf den Ackerbau ausüben. Hamburg.

———. 1966. Isolated State. Pergamon Press.

Vuchic, Vukan. 2017. Transportation for Livable Cities. Routledge.

Wilhelmsson, Mats, Roland Andersson, and Kerstin Klingborg. 2011. “Rent Control and Vacancies in Sweden.” International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis 4 (2): 105–29.

Аналитический центр НАФИ. 2017. “Спрос на съёмное жилье не растёт.”

Вучик, Вукан. 2017. Транспорт в городах, удобных для жизни. Litres.

Гейл, Ян. 2012. Города для людей. М.: Концерн <<КРОСТ>>.

Гусев, А Б. 2008. “Доступность жилья в России и за рубежом: сравнительный анализ.” http://kapital-rus.ru/articles/article/dostupnost_zhilya_v_rossii_i_za_rubezhom.

Джекобс, Джейн. 2011. Смерть и жизнь больших американских городов. М.: Новое издательство.

О’Салливан, А. 2002. Экономика города. Москва: «ИНФРА-М».

Росстат. 2012. Социально-демографический портрет России. По итогам Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. Edited by М А Дианов. Москва: ИИЦ <<Статистика России>>.

Спек, Джеф. 2015. Город для пешехода. М.: Искусство-ХХI век.

Стил, Kэролин. 2014. Голодный город: как еда определяет нашу жизнь. М.: StrelkaPress.

Холодилин, K A. 2019. “Мировые тенденции государственной жилищной политики.” Жилищные стратегии 6 (1): 9–44. https://1economic.ru/lib/40121.

Эллард, Kолин. 2019. Среда обитания. Как архитектура влияет на наше поведение и самочувствие. Альпина Паблишер.